The Effects of Swimming on Blood Nitric Oxide and Haematological Parameters
1Department of Sports Health, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey
2Department of Movement and Training Sciences, Faculty of Sports, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey
3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey
Keywords: Nitric oxide, red blood cell, haemoglobin, swimming, training, retraining
Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas with atherosclerosis-inhibiting effect. NO is also involved in the structure and function of erythrocytes (RBCs). Blood NO levels and haematological parameters (HPs) and the relationship between these parameters in swimmers over one-year training season have not yet been evaluated.
Material and Methods: The effects of training (TP), detraining (DTP), and retraining period (RTP) on blood NOx (as total nitrite) levels and the relationships between NO and HPs in child swimmers were investigated. Ten trained male swimmers (11.1±0.6 years old) joined the study. With intervals of two months; blood biochemistry, physical and physiological measurements were performed after TP, DTP, and RTP. As an endurance criterion, critical speed (CS) was measured. Venous blood was obtained after 12 hours of fasting, serum iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, NOx (by Cd++ mediated 'Griess' assay) levels were measured, and haemograms were assessed.
Results: NOx levels during TP were below the baseline levels (19.3%) and increased to the baseline during DTP. NOx was greater in RTP compared with DTP (p<0.05) and TP (p<0.01). Oxidative stress index (total oxidant status/total antioxidant status ratio) at TP was greater than DTP and RTP (p<0.01). WBC, RBC, Hgb and Hct were lower in DTP compared with TP (p<0.01). TP’s iron (below normal ranges) and ferritin (at the borderline) levels were increased in DTP. NOx levels were significantly correlated with ALT (r=-0.68, p<0.05) and MCV (r=-0.73, p<0.05) in TP, and with RBC (r=-0.66, p<0.05) in DTP. No significant relationship was found between CS and NOx or HPs.
Conclusions: After eight-months of TP, NOx levels were below the baseline and created therisk of anemia. These negative effects were recovered at DTP and improved at RTP. The decreased levels of NOx in TP may be due to the role ofhigh oxidative stress, as well as high consumption of NOx by increased RBC and Hb levels that occurred by a possible hypoxia caused by a long-term training.
Cite this article as: Turgay F, Ongun MA, Ongun MA, et al. The effects of swimming on blood nitric oxide and haematological parameters.Turk J Sports Med. Published online: 7th October 2018.